Divide and subdivide a solid and the traits of its solidity fade away one by one, like the features of the Cheshire Cat, to be replaced by characteristics that are not those of liquids or gases. They belong instead to a new phase of matter, the micro cluster. Micro clusters consist of tiny aggregates comprising from two to several hundred atoms. They pose questions that lie at the heart of solid state physics and chemistry, and the related field of material science. How small must an aggregate of particles become before the character of the substance they once formed is lost? How might the atoms reconfigure if freed from the influence of the matter that surrounds them? If the substance is a metal, how small must this cluster of atoms be to avoid the characteristic sharing of free electrons that underlies conductivity?"
It is now known that the atomic nucleus is a more or less spherical object whose diameter is about a few Fermis--a unit of measure equal to one quadrillionth of a meter, or simply 10-15 meter. Electrons orbit the nucleus at a distance of about 100,000 Fermis. (For comparison, the radius of the moon's orbit is only about 30 times greater than the diameter of the earth.) Packed in this Fermi-size nucleus is nearly all of the mass of an atom and all of its positive electric charge. The mass of the nucleus comes mainly from nucleons. Protons carry the positive charge.
The structure of the nucleus arises from two types of interactions: strong and electromagnetic. As a result of the strong interaction, or nuclear force, protons bind to neutrons and to each other. The nuclear force binds nucleons very tightly but acts over a very short range. To separate two neutrons that are one Fermi apart, for instance, requires an energy of about one million electron volts. On the other hand, only about 10 electron volts is needed to dissociate two nucleons that are 10 Fermis apart.
As a result of the electromagnetic interaction, or Coulomb force, protons repel other protons. Although the Coulomb force is weaker than the nuclear force, it acts over a much longer range. If two protons are one Fermi apart, the Coulomb force is about 100 times weaker than the nuclear force. Yet at a distance of 10 Fermis, the Coulomb force is about 10 times stronger than the nuclear force.
A discontinuity of this magnitude is not observed in any other part of the periodic table.
Of special interest are those shapes known as 'superdeformed' (SD) where the nucleus acquires a very elongated shape that can be approximately represented by the ellipsoid where the ratio of the long to short axis is considerably larger than that of normal deformation ~ 1.3:1. Within the framework of the anisotropic harmonic-oscillator model one can expect the existence of favorable shell gaps that appear regularly as a function of deformation and nucleon number. They are predicted to occur for particular 'super deformed, magic numbers', and at deformations corresponding to integer ratios to the length of the axes (e.g., . . . corresponds to a ratio of 2 to 1).
Such deformation plays an important role in spontaneous fission, where the 2:1 configuration is connected with the second minimum of the fission barrier, as well as in heavy ion collisions, leading to resonant molecular-like behavior.
It is not empty. Even when all matter and heat radiation has been removed from a region of space, the vacuum of classical physics remains filled with a distinctive pattern of electromagnetic fields.
Researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley laboratory have been finding that rapidly spinning nuclei with different masses have similar--if not exactly the same--moments of inertia. 'Something is going on,' said Frank F. Stephens, a physicist at the Lawrence Berkeley lab, 'and for reasons we don't understand yet.'" "A spinning nucleus results from an off-center collision between two nuclei that fuse to form a rapidly spinning, elongated body. "The deformed nucleus can take the shape of an American football, a doorknob, or possibly even a banana depending on the collision energy in the nuclei. In a typically deformed nucleus the long axis exceeds the two short axis by about a factor of 1.3. Nucleus whose long axis is about twice that of the short axis are called superdeformed." That's what we discussed earlier, the 2 to 1 deformation. "It is in these superdeformed nuclei that curious goings on have taken place. A spinning superdeformed nucleus slows down in discrete steps, each time emitting gamma rays, or highly energetic photons. The emissions produce a characteristic band of energy spikes all spaced equally apart. The surprise: the spectra of some different superdeformed nuclei were almost identical.
To exceed the critical cooling rate Rc is a necessary and sufficient condition for glass formation. It is also a minimum condition, ie any cooling rate in excess of Rc will result in a liquid solidifying as a glass. In principle, therefore, it should be possible to quench any liquid into a glassy (vitreous) state and glasses are known to form from liquids in which the bonding is basically covalent, ionic, metallic, hydrogen bonded or van Der Waal bonded. Some materials, notably noble elements, and simple ionic compounds such as NaCl have not been prepared in a glassy form but so far as is known this must be a practical limitation of the cooling technique.
A prerequisite for glass formation is the prevention of nucleation and crystal growth as a liquid is cooled below it's melting or freezing temperature.
For several biological systems involving nerve or growth processes the square of the activation energy is a linear function of temperature over a moderate range of physiological temperatures. This behavior may be predicted from the hypothesis that the rate of biological process is controlled by single electron tunneling between micro-regions of superconductivity.
Superconductivity has been observed. It's responsible for nerve and growth processes. The square of the activation energy is a function...
Abstract: The proposal of coherent electromagnetic processes as the engine of biological dynamics suggests that Josephson effects could be present in living cells. Positive experimental evidence is reported and discussed.
Summary: Various species of organisms can detect weak magnetic fields from .1 to 5 gauss. Indirect evidence suggests that electron tunneling may occur across junctions between superconducting micro regions in living systems. Man made superconducting Josephson junctions have been fabricated with magnetic sensitivity as high as 10-11 gauss. It is suggested that superconducting Josephson junctions in living systems may provide a physical mechanism with more than enough sensitivity to explain the observed responses of organisms to weak magnetic fields.
It is shown that the coherent electric longitudinal vibrations predicted by Froelich and experimentally detected by Webb in living cells, actually obey nonlinear optical laws. These vibrations might form a network of filaments within cells.
We assume that pre-and sub-conscious processing corresponds with quantum coherent superposition which can perform "quantum computing" (Penrose, 1989). A number of authors (e.g. Deutsch, 1985; Deutsch and Josza 1992; Feynman 1986; Benioff, 1982) have proposed that quantum coherence can implement multiple computations simultaneously, in parallel, according to quantum linear superposition: the quantum state then "collapses" to a particular result. A state which "self-collapses" (OR) will have an element of non-computability, even though evolution of its quantum coherence had been linear and computable. A quantum superposed state collapsed by external environment or observation (SR, or R) lacks a non-computable element, and would thus be unsuitable for consciousness. Large scale quantum coherence occurring among tubulins (e.g. via electrons in hydrophobic pockets arrayed in the microtubule lattice, or ordered water within hollow MT cores) could take on aspects of a quantum computer in pre-conscious and sub-conscious modes. . .
. . . But what is consciousness? According to the principles of OR (Penrose, 1994), superpositioned states each have their own space-time geometries. When the degree of coherent mass-energy difference leads to sufficient separation of space-time geometry, the system must choose and decay (reduce, collapse) to a single universe state, thus preventing "multiple universes" (e.g. Wheeler, 1957). In this way, a transient superposition of slightly differing space-time geometries persists until an abrupt quantum classical reduction occurs and one or the other is chosen. Thus consciousness may involve self-perturbations of space-time geometry.
Water inside living cell cytoplasm fluctuates between phases of disordered liquid (solution: "sol") and ordered solid (gelatinous: "gel") determined by polymerization of the actin cytoskeleton. Cycles of sol-gel transformations are important in fundamental cellular processes (movement, growth, mitosis, synapse formation, etc.) and are regulated by calcium, which in turn may be regulated by other cytoskeletal structures such as microtubules. Sol-gel transformations are close to the nature of life, and of consciousness enigmatic phenomena for which quantum coherence has been suggested as an explanatory mechanism.
In a quantum coherent system which remains isolated from its environment, spatially distributed components can exist in coherent "superposition" of many possible states. This property may explain the unity of biological functions in a living cell, and of consciousness throughout macroscopic portions of the brain.
The modification of DNA by cisplatin has been examined. Anti-tumour active Pt compounds induce in DNA, at low levels of binding, local conformational alterations which have the character of non-denaturing distortions. These changes in DNA occur due to formation of inter-strand cause links...
The researchers examined the electrical properties of short lengths of double-helix DNA in which there was a ruthenium atom at each end of one of the strands. Meade and Kayyem estimated from earlier studies that a short single strand of DNA ought to conduct up to 100 electrons a second. Imagine their astonishment when they measured the rate of flow along the ruthenium-doped double helix: the current was up by a factor of more than 10,000 times-over a million electrons a second. It was as if the double helix was behaving like a piece of molecular wire.
For some time, chemists have suspected that the double helix might create a highly conductive path along the axis of the molecule, a route that does not exist in the single strand. Here was confirmation of this idea.
Phonons are quantized modes of atomic vibration that propagate throughout the lattice of a solid. In low-temperature superconductors, quasiparticles (electrons plus their associated screening clouds) disturb the phonons and create a force that overcomes the electrons' repulsive charges. The electrons then form a quantum state made up of Cooper pairs, which cannot scatter off the phonons, thereby eliminating resistance.
We have already discussed how, in an electrolyser, the water was easily split, using electricity for the force and some electrolyte as a catalyst at a low power level. Eventually, at some time, every single water molecule was split apart, the anions and cations that were then formed turned into mono-atomic atoms H and O. In this process the electrolyser stays at the same temperature, because energy (as electricity) is being added at the same rate as it is being absorbed by the endothermic chemical reaction. In a "normal" electrolyser, these H and O atoms then form into H2 and O2 in exothermic reactions which generate excess heat.
The textbooks give a temperature of between 2210 degrees Centigrade and 2900 degrees Centigrade for hydrogen burned in oxygen. Yet, when Brown's Gas is applied to the tip of a tungsten rod, there is intense light and the dimensions and mass of the metal are reduced by what appears to be vaporization. The temperature for the vaporization of tungsten is supposedly 5900 degrees Centigrade. This observed effect ought to demand the most urgent and thorough scientific investigation.
If classical nondeterminism is possible at all condensate levels the various geometerical changes of biosystem reduce to conscious selections between various classical histories. Certainly effective control mechanisms for 3-geometry are needed and superconductivity is a good candidate. If 3-surface is sufficiently near to bacuum, Cooper pairs can control the topology and geometry of the 3-surface . . . This control mechanism might be at work at molecular length scales. For instance, unwinding of DNA . . .
One can understand Hudsons claims b) and c) if one assumes that exotic super conductors are magnetic insulators: B= mu_R*B(ext), mu_R much larger than one. Insulator property means that the tangential component of the external magnetic field is amplified by the factor mu_R in the boundary between exotic super conductor and exterior world. mu_R sim 10^6 is needed to explain Hudson's claims. Perhaps it is not accident that the model of cell membrane as super conductor forced also the conclusion mu_R sim 10^6!
Latest work in TGD inspired theory of consciousness and description of brain as macroscopic quantum system The list below gives the latest work in TGD inspired theory of consciousness and description of brain as macroscopic quantum system: articles are in form of ps.Z compressed files or as html files. Articles appear in chronological order and reflect the vigorous development of ideas during the last year.
1.TGD inspired theory of consciousness: summary of situation in June 96. (ps, html)
2.A mechanism for achieving macroscopic quantum coherence in brain. (ps , html)
3.TGD inspired theory of consciousness: the most recent findings. (ps , html)
4.A possible mechanism for super conductivity in biosystems. (ps , html)
5.TGD:eish explanation for Comorosan effect (ps),
6.TGD:eish model for nerve pulse and EEG (ps, html)
7.TGD inspired model for brain as macroscopic quantum system: summary of the situation in March 97 (ps)
8.Negentropy Maximization Principle and TGD Inspired Theory of Consciousness (ps, html)
9.Quantum Entanglement and Exotic States of Consciousness (ps)
10.About the Problem of Identifying the Sensory Qualia (ps)
11.DNA as conductor? (ps)
12.Phantom DNA effect, Comorosan effect, DNA as a conductor, ORMEs: four peculiar phenomena with a common
13.TGD Inspired Model of Psychokinesis. (ps)
14.A Model for Soul (ps, html)
15.Abstracts about TGD inspired theory of consciousness and application of TGD in biosystems
"When an examination of the electron shells by energy level and the amounts of electrons found in each is done, the distribution of electrons might be shown to represent a boson toroidal ring that has been lowered in energy level and expanded out amongst electron orbitals as fermions of various energies. Transition elements after BEC may, because of their atomic mass, enable them to produce a quantal disc with enough potential to charge the nucleus with static electric energy thus generating the coulomb wave used in resonance connectivity and deformation of the nucleus as the 'charging' device of the high spin atoms."
Between August 1895 and October 1933, Charles W. Leadbeater and Annie Besant of the Theosophical Society conducted clairvoyant studies of the atomic structure of the elements. Both of these individuals had previously awakened kundalini; Leadbeater has described his having done so by pranayama, which is the same method I used. After kundalini has been awakened, and after the ajna chakra (brow chakra) is fully functioning, it is possible to extend one's consciousness, specifically the faculty of vision, through great ranges in magnification capability, and either up or down in objective size. In yogic writings, this is part of what is allegorically referred to as the ability to make oneself very small or very large at will.
As we have seen. a chemical atom may be dissociated into less complicated bodies; these. again. into still less complicated; these. again, into yet still less complicated. After the third dissociation but one more is possible: the fourth dissociation gives the ultimate physical atom on the atomic sub-plane. the Anu. This may vanish from the plane. but it can undergo no further dissociation on it. In this ultimate state of physical matter two types of units, or Anu, have been observed; they are alike in everything save the direction of their whorls and of the force which pours through them. In the one case force pours in from the "outside," from fourth-dimensional space, the Astral plane, and passing through the Anu, pours into the physical world. In the second. it pours in from the physical world, and out through the Anu into the "outside" again, i.e., vanishes from the physical world. The one is like a spring, from which water bubbles out; the ocher is like a hole. into which mater disappears. We call the Anu from which force comes out positive or male; those through which it disappears, negative or female. All Anu, so far observed are from one or other of these two forms.
ABSTRACT: A century-old claim by two early leaders of the Theosophical Society to have used a form of ESP to observe subatomic particles is evaluated. Their observations are found to be consistent with facts of nuclear physics and with the quark model of particle physics provided that their assumption that they saw atoms is rejected. Their account of the force binding together the fundamental constituents of matter is shown to agree with the string model. Their description of these basic particles bears striking similarity to basic ideas of superstring theory. The implication of this remarkable correlation between ostensible paranormal observations of subatomic particles and facts of nuclear and particle physics is that quarks are neither fundamental nor hadronic states of superstrings, as many physicists currently assume, but, instead, are composed of three subquark states of a superstring.
The Compton Radius Vortex illustrations are from clairvoyant viewing by Annie Besant and Charles Leadbeater in 1895, as described in their book Occult Chemistry, as reprinted in Beyond the Big Bang, by Paul A. Laviolette (Park Street Press 1995).
"What is different about the soil anomalies in the south western desert is their huge size and high concentrates of precious metals as measured by geochemical analysis. These soil samples also prove difficult to measure gold content with conventional fire assays and therefore there is a lot of doubt that any economical gold deposit exists."
Michael Mehrtens definition: "Microclusters are bundles of atoms of one or more elements that are packed in symmetrical configurations, the surface of which is defined by an electron field to which other atoms may be attached. Thus, it is possible to have molecules that are essentially alloys of gold and base metals, that behave in a manner conventional chemical theory cannot predict and which do not exhibit the reactions of the mono-atomic elements; silver, platinum and transition group elements form similar microclusters. For these reasons, normal fire assay and other conventional chemistry cannot be applied to these rocks." Michael Mehrtens is a geochemist. His background includes South Africa (Anglo American Company) and (North America) Anglo American Company and Rio Tinto.
A microcluster is small chemically inert cluster of atoms that has definite crystalline structure. They can be synthetic, however for this work an assumption is that the natural microclusters are forms comparable to the man made microcluster. Microcluster research started with natural occurrences. Clusters exist as molecular species which can substitute and mimic various elements for one another. Microclusters can be as large as 200 or more atoms. Certain atomic examples for each atom are rare; the rarity is due to current physical chemistry concepts. Research has demonstrated that natural micro-clusters are superconductors; they are Cheshire in that they can disappear and avoid chemical detection by conventional means. Most, if not all, have catalytic properties; they are magnetic or can be induced to have electromagnetic properties; and they can form giant inert ions which I call Mega-ions."
"David Hudson's work has been known to me for some time as well as a couple of his patents. I do not know David Hudson himself. He is a man of wisdom and his observations are very good, although I do not agree with some of his opinions, because in those regards I have opinions of my own. But, I can understand from where he draws his opinions and therefore, respect them. It is interesting how he evolved into his research. I think all of the people working in this field have a knowledge evolution story to tell. I admire the fact that he tells the story and gives the opinion of others as well as his own. It is a shame that some companies working in the field of cluster and micro colloid chemistry/physics refuse to admit that they are working in a field of chemistry that varies from what has been the conventional thinking until recent years. By this denial, they leave the doors open via the more recent research to demonstrate their ignorance and infact lay the ground work as exposure to fraudulent perceptions. There are good people out there doing the research and making an honest effort to tell of their findings. They are at universities, basement labs and in most countries every where. I have had the exposure and good fortune to work with information and scientists that helped me form my opinions. Apparently, David used them also. He didn't try to call a camel a horse and enter it in a horse race. Good for him.
While I am at it let me say that microclusters are the smallest of the colloids. They come in mono, by and multiple polarities. They can have multiple valences as well as single valences. They can occur as compounds and ions at the same time. They can have one or more ligand bonds, positive and negative valences at the same time. They can be mono-elemental and they can be alloys. They appear as physical stable atomic configurations and have no association to other reactive agents, nor will they collect unto their own kind.
Hudson's work in his patents that I have looked at were designed to collect certain groups of clusters as clusters. In the mining industry the target is much more simple, although maybe not that simple. Here all we want to do is collect the valuable elements in any cluster form or otherwise. The next trick is to convert the clusters to their marketable forms. Makes no difference what the target, platinum, gold, silver or lead. Collect, concentrate and convert. That is the mining companies game. Hudson is tackling a much more difficult target, I believe.
But here is where the simple target become more difficult. The mineral process industry has to accept that there are virtually an infinite number of cluster and charged colloid combinations. Platinum and gold therefore only represent a portion of infinity. We may not in our lifetime be able to collect all of the cluster forms. My goodness, as far as I am aware, I am the only person that has a crude method of classification for these PGM and gold cluster resources. The classifications are:
1. Rocks where free gold can be seen with the naked eye and will not assay accurately. The reason, in my opinion is caused by cluster interferences. For instance, if the samples are subjected to amalgamation recoveries, they will produce far more gold than by fire assay. The Oro Grande and Lost Basin Arizona. At both the gold can be collected by physical means, but will not accurately report to the excess litharge assay. Platinum can be visually seen at the Oro Grande as well as the gold. Platinum is present at Lost Basin but there I have seen only free gold in the rocks.
2. Gold in microscopic visible particles. In these the same is true as in number one, except to see the gold a hand lense or microscope is required to see the larger particles of values. Arkansas, Texas, Virginia, Alaska, Fort MacKay area of Alberta, Athabaska region of Saskatchewan, shale deposits in Colorado, Utah and elsewhere.
3. Gold and PGMs in cluster form where the values cannot be seen by either unaided visual inspection or by microscope. Some of these deposits are older deposits that have been remineralized by hydrothermal mineralization. The Rudnik in Yugoslavia, the Oro Grande, the Climax Molybdenum mine and others fit this category. Some of these deposits are ore deposits for the non precious metals.
4. The micro-colloid deposits. These are deposits that may be concentrated by certain means. They are usually associated with the more difficult true microcluster deposits. 5. The true microcluster deposit. It goes from difficult to much more difficult in the relative scheme of things. Here the individuat species are easy to move around, collect into certain mediums like oil saturated woody products, possible flotation processes and by some conventional methods like cyanidation. But what do you have after you collect them? I am not at liberty to identify these locations.
6. The non-valence, mono-polar inert micro-species that will resist almost anything modern science throws at it. It is these guys that every once in a while show up like the "Cheshire Cat". We may not live to see this guy tamed. These are found in certain low sulfur volcanic steam events, as brine deposits and the like. They also can be collected into some organics and in sea bed deposits as well as shell fish shells along major crustal breaks. (Hunter, Parker)"
"THE OSMIUM BATTERY of the future will be capable of holding a single charge up to 3,000 miles. The inlay Osmium coating of a computer chip eliminates heat (0) resistance. This elimination of heat will increase the speed of tomorrow’s computers up to a 1,000X’s over today’s computers. Osmium will be used in the future to turn ultraviolet light into electricity."