The Humane Gospel is quite similar to the Gospel of the Holy Twelve. It does not seem to have as much detail about Jesus' life and, in particular, about the equality of women. It also lacks the explicit references to reincarnation that are in the Gospel of the Holy Twelve.
On the other hand, it seems to have a much stronger emphasis on natural health methods. It is much more closely related to the Essene Gospel of Peace than the Gospel of the Holy Twelve.
There are many passages which are quite similar though. Here is a passage from the Humane Gospel on Jesus' travels:
"And it came to pass, that Jesus went into many nations to teach the holy law of God, into Assyria and India and into Persia and into the land of the Chaldeans. And Jesus did travel into many different nations and spake unto many peoples of the holy way of life, and he did visit their temples and spake unto their priests - yea, instructing and reproving even their wise men for many years, according to the wisdom of the True God. And Jesus was loved there among the people, and worked many wonders, and healed the sick and aided the weak and the ignorant, for Jesus felt a great pity for the people, even as he was witness to their lawlessness and poverty and slavery and inhumanity."
Here is the comparable passage from the Holy Twelve:
"AND after a time he went into Assyria and India and into Persia and into the land of the Chaldeans. And he visited their temples and conversed with their priests, and their wise men for many years, doing many wonderful works, healing the sick as he passed through their countries."
Another correlated passage from Holy Twelve refers to Jesus' study of alchemy in Egypt:
"And for seven years he conversed with God face to face, and he learned the language of birds and of beasts, and the healing powers of trees, and of herbs, and of flowers, and the hidden secrets of precious stones, and he learned the motions of the Sun and the Moon and the stars, and the powers of the letters, and mysteries of the Square and the Circle and the Transmutation of things, and of forms, and of numbers, and of signs. From thence he returned to Nazareth to visit his parents, and he taught there and in Jerusalem as an accepted Rabbi, even in the temple, none hindering him."
A similar passage is in the Humane Gospel:
And Jesus experienced the language of birds and of beasts and even the fishes of the sea, and the healing powers of trees, and of herbs and grass, and of flowers, and also the purifying power of water and the hidden secrets of precious stones in relation to all the creations of the earth. Small things even unto great things did Jesus come to know and understand in a great way. Thus in Jesus the man, were all things revealed by God, even as all things were revealed unto him before he came. For there remained no thing hidden unto him, whether it be times and seasons of the sun and the moon and the stars in their appointed times and places or the powers of the sacred letters and mysteries of the square and the circle and the transmutation of things, and of forms, and of numbers and of signs.
Yea, Jesus did understand every law of nature both visible and invisible to man, even the very secrets of the aeons did he discern and know. So it was that there remained nothing hidden to his mind, for all the natural decrees of God were manifested in him and through him, making the silent to be heard and the darkness, light. For all the light of the holy law was in him, he being in God's rest from the very beginning of time, even unto his birth as a holy child unto the Christ. And Jesus was perfect, he being the Law made flesh upon earth, to bear testimony to truth from above, that many would know of the Father's love and gentleness and true nature.
And in time, Jesus ended his stay
with his brothers and sisters of the holy way in Egypt and returned to
Nazareth to visit his parents, and while there he was approved as Rabbi
in Jerusalem, instructing many in the holy things of God, even in the temple,
In both paired passages the Humane Gospel seems to have more detail. When it comes to the subject of reincarnation though, the Gospel of the Holy Twelve is much more verbose:
The Regeneration Of The Soul
1. JESUS sat in the porch of the Temple, and some came to learn his doctrine, and one said unto him, Master, what teachest thou concerning life?
2. And he said unto them, Blessed are they who suffer many experiences, for they shall be made perfect through suffering: they shall be as the angels of God in Heaven and shall die no more, neither shall they be born any more, for death and birth have no more dominion over them.
3. They who have suffered and overcome shall be made Pillars in the Temple of my God, and they shall go out no more. Verily I say unto you, except ye be born again of water and of fire, ye cannot see the kingdom of God.
4. And a certain Rabbi (Nicodemus) came unto him by night for fear of the Jews, and said unto him. How can a man be born again when he is old? can he enter a second time into his mother's womb and be born again?
5. Jesus answered, Verily I say unto you except a man be born again of flesh and of spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. The wind bloweth where it listeth, and ye hear the sound thereof, but cannot tell whence it cometh or whither it goeth.
6. The light shineth from the East even unto the West; out of the darkness, the Sun ariseth and goeth down into darkness again; so is it with man, from the ages unto the ages.
7. When it cometh from the darkness, it is that he hath lived before, and when it goeth down again into darkness, it is that he may rest for a little, and thereafter again exist.
8. So through many changes must ye be made perfect, as it is written in the book of Job, I am a wanderer, changing place after place and house after house, until I come unto the City and Mansion which is eternal.
9. And Nicodemus said unto him, How can these things be? And Jesus answered and said unto him, Art thou a teacher in Israel, and understandeth not these things? Verily we speak that which we do know, and bear witness to that which we have seen, and ye receive not our witness.
10. If I have told you of earthly things and ye believe not, how shall ye believe if I tell you of Heavenly things? No man hath ascended into Heaven, but he that descended out of Heaven, even the Son-Daughter of man which is in Heaven.
Iesus Forewarneth His Disciples
Glad Tidings to Zaccheus
1. AND Jesus went up into a mountain and there he sat with his disciples and taught them, and he said unto them, Fear not, little flock, for it is your Father's good pleasure to give you the kingdom.
2. Sell that ye have and do that which is good, for them which have not; provide yourselves bags which wax not old, a treasure in the heavens that faileth not, where no thief approacheth, neither moth corrupteth. For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also.
3. Let your loins be girded about, and your lights burning, and ye yourselves like unto men that wait for their lord, when he will return from the wedding that when he cometh and knocketh they may open unto him immediately.
4. Blessed are those servants whom the lord, when he cometh, shall find watching; verily I say unto you that he shall gird himself and make them to sit down at his table, and will come forth and serve them.
5. And if he shall come in the second watch, or come in the third watch and find them so, blessed rare those servants.
6. And this know, that the guardian of the house not knowing what hour the thief would come, would have watched and not have suffered his house to have been broken through. Be ye therefore ready also, for the Son of man cometh at an hour when ye think not.
7. Then Peter said unto him, Lord, speakest thou this parable unto us, or even to all? And the Lord said, Who then is that faithful and wise steward, whom his lord shall make ruler over his household, to give them who serve their portion in due season?
8. Blessed is that servant whom his lord when he cometh shall find so doing. Of a truth I say unto you, that he will make him ruler over all that he hath.
9. But and if that servant say in his heart, My lord delayeth his coming and shall begin to beat the menservants and maidservants and to eat and drink and to be drunken, the lord of that servant will come in a day when he looketh not for him, and at an hour when he is not aware and will appoint him his portion with the unfaithful.
10. And that servant which knew his lord's will and prepared not himself, neither did according to his will, shall be beaten with many stripes. But he that knew not, and did commit things worthy of stripes, shall be beaten with few stripes. For unto whomsoever much is given, of him shall they much require the less.
11. For they who know the Godhead, and have found in the way of Life the mysteries of light and then have fallen into sin, shall be punished with greater chastisements than they who have not known the way of Life.
12. Such shall return when their cycle is completed and to them will be given space to consider, and amend their lives, and learning the mysteries, enter into the kingdom of light.
The Christ Within The Soul
The Resurrection And The Life
1. As Jesus sat by the west of the Temple with his disciples, behold there passed some carrying one that was dead to burial, and a certain one said unto him, Master, if a man die, shall he live again?
2. And he answered and said, I am the resurrection and the life, I am the Good, the Beautiful, the True, if a man believe in me he shall not die, but live eternally. As in Adam all die, so in the Christ shall all be made alive. Blessed are the dead who die in me, and are made perfect in my image and likeness, for they rest from their labours and their works do follow them. They have overcome evil, and are made Pillars in the Temple of my God, and they go out no more, for they rest in the Eternal.
3. For them that have done evil there is no rest, but they go out and in, and suffer correction for ages, till they are made perfect. But for them that have done good and attained unto perfection, there is endless rest and they go into life everlasting. They rest in the Eternal.
4. Over them the repeated death and birth have no power, for them the wheel of the Eternal revolves no more, for they have attained unto the Centre, where is eternal rest, and the centre of all things is God.
5. AND one of the disciples asked him, How shall a man enter into the Kingdom? And he answered and said, If ye make not the below as the above, and the left as the right, and the behind as the before, entering into the Centre and passing into the Spirit, ye shall not enter into the Kingdom of God.
6. And he also said, Believe ye not that any man is wholly without error for even among the prophets. and those who have keen initiated into the Christhood, the word of error has been found. But there are a multitude of error which are covered by love.
The Order of the Kingdom (Part III)
1. AND another spake, saying, Master, if one have committed a sin, can a man remit or retain his sin? And Jesus said, God forgiveth all sin to those who repent, but as ye sow, so also must ye reap; Neither God nor man can remit the sins of those who repent nor forsake their sins; nor yet retain the sins of those who forsake them. But if one being in the spirit seeth clearly that any repent and forsake their sins, such may truly say unto the penitent, Thy sins are forgiven thee, for All sin is remitted by repentance and amendment and they are loosed from it, who forsake it and bound to it, who continue it.
2. Nevertheless the fruits of the sin must continue for a season, for as we sew so must we reap, for God is not mocked, and they who sow to the flesh shall reap corruption, they who sow to the spirit shall reap life, everlasting. Wherefore if any forsake their sins and confess them, let the presbyter say unto such in this wise, May God forgive thee thy sins, and bring thee to everlasting life. All sin against God is forgiven by God, and sin against man by man.
3. AND another asked him, saying, If any be sick among us, shall we have power to heal even as thou dost? And Jesus answered, This power cometh of perfect chastity and of faith. They who are born of God keep their seed within them.
4. Nevertheless if any be sick among you, let them send for the presbyters of the church that they may anoint them with oil of olive in the Name of de Lord, and the prayer of faith, and the going out of power, with the voice of thanksgiving, shall raise them up, if they are not detained by sin, of this, or a former life.
The Order of the Kingdom (Part IV)
1. AND another asked him, saying, Master, how wilt thou that we bury our dead? And Jesus answered, Seek ye council of the deacons in this matter, for it concerneth the body only. Verily, I say, unto you there is no death to those who believe in the life to come. Death, as ye deemed it, is the door to life, and the grave is the gate to resurrection, for those who believe and obey. Mourn ye not, nor weep for them that have left you, but rather rejoice for their entrance into life.
2. As all creatures come forth from the unseen into this world, so they return to the unseen, and so will they come again till they be purified. Let the bodies of them that depart be committed to the elements, and the Father-Mother, who reneweth all things, shall give the angels charge over them, and let the presbyter pray that their bodies may rest in peace, and their souls awake to a joyful resurrection.
3. There is a resurrection from the body, and there is a resurrection in the body. There is a raising out of the life of the flesh, and there is a falling into the life of the flesh. Let prayer be made For those who are gone before, and For those that are alive, and For those that are yet to come, for all are One family in God. In God they live and move and have their being.
4. The body that ye lay in the
grave, or that is consumed by fire, is not the body that shall be, but
they who come shall receive other bodies, yet their own, and as they have
sown in one life, so shall they reap in another. Blessed are they who have
worked righteousness in this life, for they shall receive the crown of
There are no comparable passages on reincarnation in the Humane Gospel.
The Humane Gospel also seems to be a bit less mystical in terms of blaming Satan for human ills while the Holy Twelve barely mentions Satan at all and has a much greater emphasis on personal responsibility.
Both Gospels have consistent and extensive condemnation of those who kill or mistreat non-human animals. A number of these passages are quite similar between the two gospels. Vic posted a Humane Gospel passage about a man mistreating a horse some time back and I responded with a similar passage from the Gospel of the Holy Twelve. Here is another parallel passage about the mistreatment of a cat:
And one day as Jesus traveled through a small village with some of his disciples, he noticed a crowd of no-gooders, those of a certain kind who search for evil things to do. And they were torturing a sickly cat, which they had decided to shamefully treat, for they could find nothing better to use idle time, they being lazy and unworthy young men.
And Jesus seeing this mean cruelty, commanded them to leave off from tormenting the poor beast, and he began to reason with them, so as to make them realize their evil, but they listened not, for the Holy Law was not found in them but only hardness of heart; and they reviled Jesus for his interference with their pastime.
At this Jesus said unto them: "This good earth which my Father-Mother made for joy and gladness, ye have made into the lowest regions of hell with thy evil deeds of violence and cruelty.
Why doeth the stronger always prey on the weakest? tell ye, since Satan cursed the Holy Creations of God, no thing is safe in the earth from unholy men, till the Son of Man cometh in all his glory and free every creature from the curse of dread and of fear."
And at hearing these words the young men fled from before his face, but one did return and defied Jesus further, and spake harsh words, yea, even threatening Jesus with harm. Hence, not responding to the sound counsel of Jesus, Jesus put forth his hand, and the young man's arm withered.
And the next day, the mother of the young man came unto Jesus. and prayed that he would restore her son's withered arm. And Jesus, discerning that the woman was of good heart, and the young man without maturity, spake unto them of the law of love and the unity of all life in the One Household of God. And they both listened unto Jesus' words with sincere hearts.
And Jesus continued, saying to them also: "As ye do in this life to your fellow creatures, who are thy lesser brothers and sisters, so shall it be accounted to you in the life to come For I tell ye truly, Satan charges all evil against thy souls, and seeketh to destroy the whole of mankind through sin. Therefore I tell ye, work only that which is humane, so that thy good accounting can overrule the evil charges Satan shall surely bring forth, for no soul shall inherit the resurrection of life, whom this one claimeth as seed. For the evil one bringeth many into sin, but judgeth that sin also, for the wages of evil are death, and Satan giveth no good rewards but only bad.
Yea, all those whosoever liveth by the unholy law of this one, condemneth his own soul, for he is accused daily and without pity.
Search ye, therefore, the wisdom of the True God, which leadeth to life and mercy for all creatures, great and small, weak and strong, and the evil one will flee from you, for where light dwelleth, darkness enters not."
And the young man believed the
words of Jesus and did confess many sins unto him, and Jesus again stretched
forth his hand, and healed the withered arm of the young man. And many
people glorified God, in that He had given such great power unto the Son
A similar passage is found in the Holy Twelve:
1. As Jesus passed through a certain village he saw a crowd of idlers of the baser sort, and they were tormenting a cat which they had found and shamefully treating it. And Jesus commanded them to desist and began to reason with them, but they would have none of his words, and reviled him.
2. Then he made a whip of knotted cords and drove them away, saying, This earth which my Father-Mother made for joy and gladness, ye have made into the lowest hell with your deeds of violence and cruelty; And they fled before his face.
3. But one more vile than the rest returned and defied him. And Jesus put forth his hand, and the young man's arm weathered, and great fear came upon all; and one said, He is a sorcerer.
4. And the next day the mother of the young man came unto Jesus, praying that he would restore the withered arm. And Jesus spake unto them of the law of love and the unity of all life in the one family of God. And he also said, As ye do in this life to your fellow creatures, so shall it be done to you in the life to come.
5. And the young man believed
and confessed his sins, and Jesus stretched forth his hand, and his withered
arm became whole even as the other, And the people glorified God who had
given such power unto man.
It is clear that both of these documents have a common source but they are also clearly aimed at different audiences.
The metaphysics of the Gospel of the Holy Twelve is somewhat more sophisticated while the Humane Gospel seems to be aimed more toward the common person. Here are two metaphysical passages from these gospels. The first is from the Humane Gospel:
Jesus Tells Us the Mystery of Man's Creation
And Jesus continued to teach his disciples the mysteries of God, and they rejoiced in his wisdom and great knowledge, for never were such words spoken before. And sitting again under the shade of the twelve palm trees, one of Jesus' disciples asked:
"Righteous Teacher, it is written of old, "The Elohim made man in Their own image, male and female created They them.' How sayest thou then, that God is one? Please tell us the mystery."
And Jesus answered them saying: "Truly, I say unto you, in God is neither male nor female and yet both are one, and God is the Two in One. He is She and She is He. The Eternal All -our God- is perfect and complete and lacks nothing, our God is Infinite, and One.
"For as in the man, the Father is manifest, and the Mother hidden; so in the woman the Mother is manifest, and the Father hidden. Therefore. say unto ye, shall the name of the Father and the Mother be equally hallowed and reverenced, for They are the great powers of God, and the one is not without the other. in the One Infinite God.
"For from the All-Parent, cometh forth all life and glory, male and female both. Yea, for the Eternal All, the First Father bringeth forth every kind of life into existence and He is in them all, and they are all in Him."
And then one of Jesus' disciples asked him saying, "We believe what you tell us, Master, but did the All-Parent create everything small and great as we do see before us this day''"
And Jesus said unto them further: "Listen and ye shall learn the secrets of life, in that all life cometh from the Eternal Spirit and liveth because of Him, but all things ye see before you this day, the All-Parent did not bring forth, nor of those things which ye see not and know not exist. For I say unto ye, this hour, in the beginning of the great Household of Life, the All-Parent containeth all things and all life, without beginning and without ending, He Was and Is, but the Eternal Spirit desireth not to be alone but to give life abundantly.
"Thus, He willeth into being the First Mother, Holy Wisdom, the Holy Spirit of the All-Parent and together the Father-Mother God willed into being many creations, both visible and invisible. Yea, great are the wonders of the All-Parent and little known to earthly man."
And again one of his disciples questioned Jesus further, and said unto him: "Tell us: Master, was it the Father-Mother-God, then, that brought Adam forth on earth?"
And Jesus answered him, and said: "The Eternal Spirit bringeth forth the Mother, Holy Wisdom, to create the invisible creatures first. So he the Mother, The Holy Spirit or death of Life, and then the second Father, whom ye see before you this hour. Together the Holy Mother and the second Father bringeth forth the holy archangels first, and many other angels according to station and rank, but no thing cometh into being, lest the First Father knoweth of it to be. For He is in all things and all things in Him.
"Those who have ears, give ear to hear, for the Holies of the Trinity of the Eternal Spirit created and brought forth the earthly man in the likeness of the All-Parent. Know ye, then, the female is in the male and the male is in the female, for this be the holy nature of` all things brought forth. There are female spirits and male spirits, but the world knoweth not of these secrets beyond the knowledge of man, for great are the mysteries of the One Whom you call God and even angels know not all things of the unapproachable light whereby this ONE dwelleth. For He is One Alone, and there be no other like this ONE, known as the ONE and ALL in all things and the All in One of everything holy.
"Be ye not troubled, nor work thy minds for naught, the Knowledge of this One is sufficient for you this hour. I was sent by this ONE to reveal the All-Truth for man and angel, and what I reveal is satisfying to thy souls, for the mystery is holy and only the Seed of God knoweth the meaning thereof and keepeth the faith of the one sent forth by the ALL-Parent.
"For there are some among you who shall see with eyes unveiled, the glory of the Heavens which containeth the True Temple of the All-One Mighty Spirit of Life; and ye shall understand according to thy wisdom, ye shall learn the ways of God, and ye shall be prepared. For many are those not prepared to approach the Light.
Be ye prepared now, and get caught not in death, for only in life can thou preparest thyself for the All-Parent's approval and blessing."
And the disciples marveled at
the mystery of life, and did listen to Jesus with an open ear, and Jesus
continued to teach them in the ways of the holy law of God.
The previous passage has many concepts which are similar to those in the following passage from the Gospel of the Holy Twelve but the second passage says these things in a more economical way. It almost assumes a certain level of sophistication in the understanding of its reader:
Iesus Teacheth in the Palm Circle
The Divine Life and Substance
1. JESUS came to a certain fountain near Bethany, around which grew twelve palm trees, where he often went with his disciples to teach them of the mysteries of the kingdom, and there he sat beneath the shade of the trees and his disciples with him.
2. And one of them said, Master, it is written of old, The Alohim made man in Their own image, male and female created They them. How sayest thou then that God is one? And Jesus said unto them, Verily, I said unto you, In God there is neither male nor female and yet both are one, and God is the Two in One. He is She and She is He. The Alohimour Godis perfect, Infinite, and One.
3. As in the man, the Father is manifest, and the Mother hidden; so in the woman, the Mother is manifest, and the Father hidden. Therefore shall the name of the Father and the Mother be equally hallowed, for They are the great Powers of God, and the one is not without the other, in the One God.
4. Adore ye God, above you, beneath you, on the right hand, on the left hand before you, behind you, within you, around you. Verily, there is but One God, Who is All in All, and in Whom all things do consist, the Fount of all Life and all Substance, without beginning and without end.
5. The things which are seen and pass away are The manifestations of the unseen which are eternal, that from the visible things of Nature ye may reach to the invisible things of the Godhead; and by that which is natural, attain to that which is spiritual.
6. Verily, the Alohim created man in the divine image male and female, and all nature is in the Image of God, therefore is God both male and female, not divided, but the Two in One, Undivided and Eternal, by Whom and in Whom are all things, visible and invisible.
7. From the Eternal they flow, to the Eternal they return. The spirit to Spirit, soul to Soul, mind to Mind, sense to Sense, life to Life, form to Form, dust to Dust.
8. In the beginning God willed and there came forth the beloved Son, the divine Love, and the beloved Daughter, the holy Wisdom, equally proceeding from the One Eternal Fount; and of these are the generations of the Spirits of God, the Sons and Daughters of the Eternal.
9. And These descend to earth, and dwell with men and teach them the ways of God, to love the laws of the Eternal, and obey them, that in them they may find salvation.
10. Many nations have seen their day. Under divers names have they been revealed to them, and they have rejoiced in their light; and even now they come again unto you, but Israel receiveth them not.
11. Verily I say unto you, my twelve whom I have chosen, that which hath been taught by them of old time is true-though corrupted by the foolish imaginations of men.
12. Again, Jesus spake unto Mary Magdalene saying, It is written in the law, Whoso leaveth father or mother, let him die the death. Now the law speaketh not of the parents in this life, but of the Indweller of light which is in us unto this day.
13. Whoso therefore forsaketh
Christ the Saviour, the Holy law, and the body of the Elect, let them die
the death. Yea, let them be lost in the outer darkness, for so they willed
and none can hinder.
These differences might simply be due to the differences between translators but the significance of the inclusion and exclusion of various things, like reincarnation, should be thoroughly examined.
Several passages in the Humane Gospel mention natural healing methods. There are no parallel passages in the Gospel of the Holy Twelve. The following is a primary example of this sort of passage:
Jesus Teaches Physical Health Reform:
The Natural Cures of Nature
And Jesus continued to travel with many disciples to various regions of Israel, where he did amass believers of the Holy Law, for many listened unto him and were astonished and did believe truly in their hearts that he was the Son of God, the promised deliverer of the enslaved earthly race of man ... And Jesus did heal every ailment and disease among the sick, even teaching the people the art of true health reform according to the natural laws of nature. Yea, for he taught the people healing properties of plants, even every herb and grass of the field, and the power hidden in stones, and the cleansing miracle of pure water. And many were amazed and did believe and were healed.
And because of his great wisdom and understanding Jesus amazed entire households and helped many unto the holy way of life. And Jesus did teach the clean diet of man and beast, and taught even the Holy Law on health that all may know and learn true salvation. And he named every fruit that God had given unto man as food and every vegetable that God had given unto the beasts and birds of the earth, yea even of the fishes did Jesus spake of and told every household with ears sacred truths of the holy way. And many were the listeners who obeyed his words from that time on.
And on hearing these things, a certain Sadducee who believed not in the holy things of God, asked Jesus, "Tell me, please, why sayest thou, do not eat the flesh of animals. Were not the beasts given unto man as food, even as the fruits and herbs ye spake of!"
And Jesus answered him and said,
"Behold this melon, the fruit of the earth." And Jesus broke open a watermelon
and said unto the Sadducee, "See thou with thine own eyes the good fruit
of the soil, the meat of man, and see thou the seeds within, count ye them,
for one melon maketh a hundred fold and even more. If thou sow this seed,
ye do eat from the True God, for no blood was spilled, nay, no pain nor
outcry did ye hear with thy ears or see with thine eyes. The true food
of man is from the Mother of the earth, for She brings forth perfect gifts
unto the humble of the land. But ye seek what Satan giveth, the anguish,
the death, and the blood of living souls taken by the sword. Know ye not,
those who live by the sword, die by the same death? Go ye thine way, and
plant the seeds of the good fruit of life, and leave ye off from hurting
the innocent creatures of God. For I tell ye, man needeth male and female
beasts for the food he so lusteth after, but every plant and tree, God
so giveth, beareth its own free seed for food. Depend ye not on the things
unnecessary to your soul. Plant ye the good seeds of the melon, wherein
ye saveth from season to season and waiteth for the soil like sleeping
man awaiteth the sunrise; for the seed was made for the morrow's meal,
but the animals for the joy and pleasure of God and man.
Though these are very different gospels, it is also clear that they come from a common source.